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What Are Gum Diseases?

Gum disease is an inflammation of the gums that can progress to affect the bone which surrounds and supports your teeth.Gum Disease also known as Periodontal Disease begins with bacterial growth in the mouth, localized inflammation of the gingiva which is initiated by bacteria in the dental plaque which is a microbial biofilm that forms on the teeth and gingiva. Nearly 70% of the people are affected by this disease at some point or other in their life. Though such a prevalent disease most people are unaware of this issue and the problems it can cause.

Causes Of Gum Disease

Primary cause of Gum Disease is poor oral hygiene. If you are not brushing or flossing properly, then the chances of bacteria build-up are very high. However, there are other several reasons:

  • Smoking or chewing tobacco which makes extremely difficult for gum tissues to repair
  • Consuming certain medications (oral contraceptives, steroids, anticonvulsants, calcium channel blockers, and chemotherapy) which lessen saliva flow that protects teeth and gums. Some medicines even cause the abnormal growth of the gum tissue.
  • Crooked or misaligned teeth
  • Hormonal changes such as puberty, menstruation, menopause, pregnancy etc. which can make your gums sensitive and as a result prone to gum diseases.
  • Certain illness such as cancer and HIV make your immune system weak are also at higher risk of developing gum disease. Also, people who are diabetic are more prone to get Gum Disease.
  • Genetic susceptibility such as family history which can contribute to gingivitis

Symptoms Of Gum Diseases

  • Bleeding gums when you brush or floss your teeth
  • Pulling of gums away from teeth
  • Teeth loosening
  • Change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite (malocclusion)
  • Pus between teeth & gums
  • Pain while chewing
  • Teeth sensitivity
  • Tender, red or swollen gums in oral cavity
  • Foul breath that doesn’t go away even after brushing
  • Deep space formation between the gums and teeth

Stages Or Types Of Gum Disease

The stages of Gum Diseases are as follows:


It is the first stage of gum disease, caused due to the plaque build-up on gums. If the plaque is not gone after brushing and flossing, then it can cause irritation too. In this stage, you will notice your gums bleeding while brushing and flossing. Because bone is not affected in this stage, the chances of recovery are quite very high.


Gingivitis if not treated on time, can also lead to Periodontitis. This stage starts affecting your bone. Spaces are formed between bone and gum line as a result, bacteria will get a space to penetrate deep. If you visit your dentist on time then Periodontitis can be prevented. Periodontitis is very advanced gum disease.

Advanced Periodontitis

This is the final stage of your gum disease where your bone is destroyed making your teeth loosen further. This can only be saved with surgery. And if the case is very advanced then even surgery cannot save your tooth, as a result, your dentist has to extract it.

Treatment Option Of Gum Disease

The treatment option depends on the stage of Gum Disease. It also depends on your medical history and also on your overall health.

The treatment options range from non-surgical therapies to surgical treatments.

The Non-Surgical Options Include:

Deep Cleaning

This is done in the very initial stage of developing a Gum Disease. Your dentist will remove the plaque and tartar (which hardens the tooth surface) from below and above the gum line. It is a preventive measure which helps you to save your teeth from getting gum disease.

Scaling & Root Planning

Known as a deep cleaning process. The only difference is that your dentist will give local anesthesia to start this process. Plaque and tartar are removed from above and below the gum line and after that, the rough spots smoothened which helps to remove the bacteria. This is done only if your dentist finds that you have calculus deposits under gums.

Surgical Treatment Includes:

Flap Surgery

In this, incision is made on the gums to remove tartar. Sometimes the irregular surface of the bone is smoothened so that there are no areas for bacteria which cause this disease can hide. This method is used to remove gap between gums and tooth.

Bone Graft

This method is used to regenerate the bone. The dentist use fragments of synthetic bone donated bone or your own bone which is used to replace bone destroyed due to gum disease

Soft Tissue Graft

This method is used if the gums are receded. Gums are taken from the roof of the mouth and is stitched to the area of gum recession required.

Guided Tissue Regeneration

Done along flap surgery when bone which supports if your teeth are destroyed. Your dentist will insert a small piece of mesh-like fabric between your bone and gum tissue.

Prevention Of Gum Disease

  • Brush your teeth twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
  • Floss regularly to remove plaque from between teeth.
  • Visit your dentist after every 6 months for a routine check-up and professional cleaning.
  • Quit smoking and tobacco chewing

Price For Gum Disease Treatment

The progression and the location of gum disease are the main factors responsible for the difference in price for its treatment. Delaying gum problems not only affects oral health as a whole, it directly impacts overall health for instance, its directly related to increased risk of heart disease and other systemic conditions too.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1. Can Gum Disease Be Treated On Its Own?

No, gum diseases cannot be treated on its own. Gum diseases are caused by the development of tartar on the teeth leading to gum infection. This requires dental cleaning and good oral care routine.

Q.2. How Long Does It Take For Gum Disease To Be Cured?

Gum diseases are categorized into 4 stages, gingivitis, slight periodontal disease, moderate periodontal disease, and advanced periodontal disease. Curing gum diseases and gum infection depends on the stage at which treatment begins. recovery time at stage one is 10-14 days.

Q.3. Is Gum Disease Treatable?

Yes, gum diseases are treatable. The recovery and treatment duration depends on the stage at which a gum infection is identified and what preventive measures are taken.

Q.4. What Is The First Sign Of Gum Disease

The first sign of gum disease is red, tender and swollen gums that cause discomfort and pain. Gums can also bleed while brushing, which is commonly considered as a sign of gingivitis-stage one of the gum diseases.